Primary General Science Glossary

This is a general primary science glossary. For class specific glossaries please go to the specific subjects

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Galileo Galilei was an Italian astronomer and mathematician who was the first to use a telescope to study the stars; demonstrated that different weights descend at the same rate; perfected the refracting telescope that enabled him to make many discoveries (1564-1642).


A type of ammeter or instrument for detecting or comparing or measuring small electric currents.


Gas is one of the three states of matter on Earth. A gas can flow, expand and be squeezed.


A toothed wheel that engages another toothed mechanism in order to change the speed or direction of transmitted motion.

Genetically engineered plants

The alteration of the genome of plants grown for food in order to produce crops with specific advantages.


Germination is the process of a seed starting to grow to create a new plant.

Golden section

A mathematical or geometrical proportion where the ratio between a small section and a larger section is equal to the ratio between the larger section and both sections put together.


A method of plant breeding widely used in agriculture and horticulture, where the tissues of one plant are encouraged to fuse with those of another.


Gravity is the pulling force acting between the Earth and a falling object. Gravity pulls objects to the ground. 


The process of connecting equipment to a common ground or ‘earth’. This is done as a safety mechanism in order to avoid the unsafe energizing of equipment.

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