Primary General Science Glossary

This is a general primary science glossary. For class specific glossaries please go to the specific subjects


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B

Bacteria

Very small living organisms made of only one cell which are present everywhere (the air, the soil, on the skin). Many types of bacteria can cause diseases, but others can be very helpful to humans.

Balance

A state of equilibrium

Balance point

The point along the length of the shaft at which it will balance itself when placed on a fulcrum.

Barometer

An instrument for measuring atmospheric pressure, used especially in weather forecasting, but is also used to measure altitude.

Barycentre

The point at the centre of a system; an average point, weighted according to mass or other attribute.

Base

The opposite of an acid. A Base has a pH-level of more than 7.0 up to 14.0 (A pH of 7 is neutral)

Battery

In an electrical circuit, the battery is the cell that makes electricity.

Benjamin Franklin

Benjamin Franklin, (January 17, 1706 – April 17, 1790) was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States of America. Franklin was a leading author and printer, satirist, political theorist, politician, scientist, inventor, civic activist, statesman, and diplomat. As a scientist, he was a major figure in the Enlightenment and the history of physics for his discoveries and theories regarding electricity.

Berlese funnel

A device in which soil is placed; heat and light are applied from above, forcing bugs into a container below it. Named after Antonio Berlese an Italian entomologist.

Bernoulli’s principle

The principle of conservation of energy applied to fluid flow: as the speed of a moving fluid increases, the air pressure within the fluid decreases. Named after Daniel Bernoulli, a Swiss mathematician and scientist, Bernoulli is famous for his work in the field of fluid dynamics. In 1738 he wrote a book called Hydrodynamica. In this book he explained his theories about how gases and fluids move, and how the speed at which they move affects the pressure they exert on objects they flow around.

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